The mutualistic symbiosis between fungus-gardening ants and their cultivars has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the coevolution of complex species interactions. Reciprocal specialization and vertical symbiont cotransmission are thought to promote a pattern of largely synchronous coevolutionary diversification in attines. Here we test this hypothesis by inferring the first time-calibrated multigene phylogeny of the lepiotaceous attine cultivars and comparing it with the recently published fossil-anchored phylogeny of the attine ants. While this comparison reveals some possible cases of synchronous origins of ant and fungal clades, there were a number of surprising asynchronies. For example, leaf-cutter cultivars appear to be significantly younger than the corresponding ant genera. Similarly, a clade of fungi interacting with primitive fungus-gardening ants–thought to be ancestral to the more derived leaf-cutter symbionts–appears instead to be a more recent acquisition from free-living stock. These macroevolutionary patterns are consistent with recent population-level studies suggesting occasional acquisition of novel cultivar types from environmental sources and horizontal transmission of cultivars between different ant species. Horizontal transmission events, even if rare, appear to form loose ecological connections between diffusely coevolving ant and fungus lineages that permit punctuated changes in the topology of the mutualistic ant-fungus interaction network. Abstract The mutualistic symbiosis between fungus-gardening ants and their cultivars has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the coevolution of complex species interactions.
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The question is common, and it seems so simple. Do we need to worry about medicines going bad if they are used beyond their expiration date? The answer is a bit more complicated than you might think. Why is this? It is also convenient, since computers easily can generate a date one year from the dispensing day when printing the label.
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When it comes to dating and mating, the battle between the sexes is more vicious than ever. Monica Dux wonders why it’s all got so difficult. The book is a biting critique of contemporary sexual politics, but it wasn’t her arguments that attracted most of the attention – it was the title. Her book, variously described by critics as “oversimplified”, “extreme” and “irritating fluff”, was attacked for recklessly dismissing all men and their DNA in one casual swoop.
Dowd claimed that the question she posed in the title was tongue in cheek, that she hoped it would “start conversations between men and women”, but the critics didn’t seem to get the joke and many of the conversations she started have been far from amicable. Whether she was joking or not, the mere fact that a respected commentator would so flippantly dismiss half the world’s population is telling.
Is gender-slagging becoming acceptable?
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Discord is a proprietary freeware instant messaging and VoIP application and digital distribution platform designed for creating communities ranging from gamers to education and businesses. Discord specializes in text , image, video and audio communication between users in a chat channel. The concept of Discord came from Jason Citron, who had founded OpenFeint , a social gaming platform for mobile games.
He found that some VoIP options required players to type in IP addresses just to connect, while others were resource-heavy and had known security problems. This led the developers to develop a chat service that was much friendlier to use and based on more modern technology. Discord was publicly released in May under the domain name discordapp. This was part of their response to an increase of users as a result of the COVID outbreak , which also included the introduction of server templates.
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Discord is one of the most famous messaging and voice chat platform among gamers. It is mainly used by people to communicate with each other in-game but over the time people have started using it for other purposes as well. Discord is now also used for a variety of things, especially communities. A lot of communities have now popped up on Discord, while most of them are related to games, a lot of discord servers or communities are related to other things.
Every user of Discord should feel like their voice can be heard, but not at the expense of someone else. Here are some rules for interacting with.
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Online dating is quickly overtaking in-person meetings as the most popular way for people to meet. Just about every channel that people use to communicate online has been co-opted to some extent for dating. The case of Discord is not surprising, but it is unusual. It started out as a VoIP software platform for gaming and found a lot of success there. If you want to jump in and try your luck, these are some of the best dating servers on Discord. This is easily the most popular dating server on Discord.
It has the biggest member base among dating servers, and the creators obviously take it seriously because it even has a dedicated website.